ENR 1.1-1 to ENR
1 APR 97



1. General

1.1 The air traffic rules and procedures applicable to air traffic in the Thailand territory conform to Annexes 2 and 11 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation and to those portions of the Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services applicable to aircraft and of the Regional Supplementary Procedures applicable to the SEA Region

1.2 An aircraft operating between the hours of sunset and sunrise, irrespective of weather conditions shall comply with FIR requirement.



1. General

1.1 These procedures are applicable to all aircraft including helicopter.

2. VFR Flight in Bangkok FIR

2.1 VFR flight shall be conducted when a flight visibility of not less than 5 km below 3 050 m (10 000 fl) AMSL and 8 km at and above 3 050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL and capable of maintaining at least 1 500 m horizontally and 300 m (1 000 ft) vertically dear of cloud.

2.2 VFR flight shall not be conducted between sunset and sunrise unless authorized by appropriate authority. VFR flight shall not be operated above FL 200 except military operation.

2.4 VFR flight shall maintain altitude or flight level according to ANNEX 2- Appendix 3.

3. VFR Flight in Controlled Airspace

3.1 VFR flight shall maintain two way communications with appropriate ATC unit.

3.2 VFR flight shall be granted by appropriate ATC unit prior entering into controlled airspace and switch transponder on while in this airspace if equipped with transponder on board.


1. Introduction

1.1 All of regulations as stated below are stipulated specialty for all public airports which the control zone are established, except Bangkok International Airport.

1.2 Aerodrome/Approach Control issues air traffic clearances, instructions and information to aircraft to ensure the safe, orderly and expeditious flow of air traffic

1.3 In VMC, all aircraft flying in a control zone (CTR) come under Aerodrome/Approach Control. This does not, however, relieve she pilot-in-command from responsibility in avoiding collision.

1.4 CTR dimensions are specified in ENR 2.

2. Procedure

2 1 For all operation. aircraft shall be equipped wish appropriate two-way communication. plus a radio compass. Exception may be granted by the appropriate ATS authority.

2.2 Radio communication shall be established wish she appropriate Aerodrome/Approach Control unit:

2.2.1 Prior to taxiing for departure; or
2.2.2 When intending so operate in CTR.

2.3 Aircraft shall call Aerodrome/Approach Control approximately 10 minutes before ETA at the zone boundary.

2.4 Aircraft about to enter, cross or operate within CTR shall:

2.4.1 Notify Aerodrome/Approach Control on the appropriate radio frequency of the aircraft's position, level and track.
2.4.2 Estimate time of crossing she zone boundary.
2.4.3 Maintain a continuous listening watch on that frequency while in control zone.
2.4.4 Navigate in accordance with the flight plan and ATC clearance.
2.4.5 Carry out any instructions received from Aerodrome/Approach Control.

3. VFR Flight

3.1 BY DAY (Sunrise/Sunset)

Unless otherwise specifically authorized, VFR flights will NOT be permitted to land/take-off at any airport when condition as reported to Aerodrome/Approach Control by an authorized ground observer are LESS than

Ground visibility- 5 km : or
Ceiling - 450 m (1 500 fees)

Authorization may be granted by ATC for special VFR flights, to land/take-off at any airport under conditions LESS than (3.1) above but NOT LESS than

Ground Visibility- 1 500m

as reported to Aerodrome/Approach Control by an authorized ground observer.

3.2 BY NIGHT (Sunset/Sunrise)

VFR flights to land/take-oft at any airport shall NOT be authorized to operate between sunset and sunrise, or such other period between sunset and sunrise, unless by pre-arrangement and authorized by Department of Aviation.

3.3 AT ALL TIMES as authorized

VFR flights within the CTR shall be conduced so that she aircraft maintain flight visibility and distance from cloud EQUAL TO or GREATER THAN those specified in ICAO Annex 2. table 1, viz;

Flight Visibility - 5 km below 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL and
 - 8 km at and above 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL

Distance from cloud - 1 500 m horizontally and 300 m (1 000 ft) vertically

4. Special VFR Flight

4.1 Special VFR flight may be authorized to enter a CTR for the purpose of landing, taking-off and departing directly from a CTR when ground visibility is not less than 1 500 m, provided that the aircraft is equipped with functioning radio receiver and the pilot has agreed to guard on the appropriate ATC communication frequency.

4.2 A special VFR clearance shall be issued only when specifically requested by a pilot.

4.3 Before clearing a special VFR flight an ATC must consider the extent of the proposed of flight and the availability of air/ground communication.

4.4 The pilot of an aircraft on special VFR flight;

4.4.1 shall comply with ATC instructions
4.42 is responsible for ensuring that his flight conditions enable him to remain clear of clouds, determine his flight path with reference to the surface and keep clear of obstructions.
4.4.3 is still regard with the rules of flight over the congested area of cities, towns or settlements or over an open air assembly of persons at a height at least 1 000 feet above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 meters from the aircraft.

4.5 Aircraft on special VFR clearances are not normally given a specific height to fly but for the purpose of ensuring vertical separation from other aircraft flying above the special, it may be required to fly not above a specific level.

5. Radio Communication Failure

5.1 Departing aircraft

5.1.1 Aircraft will not be permitted to take-off unless two-way radio communications can be maintain with the Control Tower.
5.1.2 If an aircraft experiences radio communications failure after departure, the pilot will comply with the VFR cruising altitude.

5.2 Arriving aircraft:

5.2.1 When aircraft radio receiver inoperative, report their position, distance, heading, altitude and departure point when approaching CTR of the airport by transmitting in the blind.
5.2.2 When two-way communications failure, radio transmitter or receiver inoperative, observe the direction of traffic in the pattern, and enter downwind with the flow of traffic. DAY TIME

-Join the traffic pattern of the landing runway by conform to the height for the type of aircraft, then make a low approach along the runway at 500 feet above the terrain, rocking wings of the aircraft until it reaches the end of the runway.
- Re-enter downwind leg and observe light signals from the Control Tower. NIGHT TIME

-Join the traffic pattern of the landing runway by conform to the height for the type of aircraft, then make a low approach along the runway at 500 feet above the terrain and blinking the landing light until it reaches the end of runway,
-Re-enter downwind leg and observe mobile control and/or control tower for light signals on base leg and final approach.

6. Aerodrome Traffic Circuit and Visual Circuit Reporting Procedure

6.1 Height

a) Jet and Prop-jet........ 1500 feet
b) Conventional............. 1000 feet
c) Light aircraft............... 600 feet
d) Helicopter.................. 500 feet

Remark: If true airspeed is less than 130 knots, aircraft is considered a light aircraft.

6.2 Enter downwind leg at a 45 degrees angle, at the centre of the pattern.

6.3 Except when specifically authorized by the Aerodrome Control, the pilot-in-command shall report position in accordance with the following diagram

a) Downwind

Aircraft shall report ‘Downwind’ abeam centre of the runway.

b) Base leg

Aircraft shall report ‘Base Leg’ on completion of the turn on to base leg.

c) Final

Aircraft shall report ‘Final’ after completion of the turn on to final approach, not more than 4 NM from the approach end of the runway

d) Long Final

Aircraft flying a straight-in approach shall report ‘long Final’ 8 NM from the approach end of the runway, and ‘Final’ when at 4 NM

7. Overhead Approach Pattern and Procedure

7.1 Height 1 500 ft AGL (Jet and Prop-jet) 1 000 ft AGL (Conventional)

7.2 Direction of traffic (see details from each airport)

7.3 Except when specifically authorized by the Aerodrome Control, the pilot-in-command of military aircraft shall report position in accordance with the following diagram

a) Initial approach point

Military aircraft shall report ‘Initial’ after established the extended runway centre line between 3 to 5 NM.

b) Break point

Military aircraft shall report ‘Break’ at the approach end of the runway. If required for traffic of other reasons, the aircraft may be asked to report ‘Break’ at the specified point (i.e. mid field or departure end of runway)

7.4 The existence of an overhead approach pattern does not eliminate the possible requirement for the military aircraft to conform to aerodrome traffic circuit if an overhead approach can not be approved.

8. Use of Runway

8.1 The aerodrome controller will nominate the runway direction according to prevailing circumstances.

8.2 Notwithstanding the runway direction nominated by ATC, the pilot-in-command shall ensure that there is sufficient length of run and that the crosswind or downwind component is within the operational limits of each particular opera­tion. If the nominated runway direction is not suitable for these reasons or for any other safety reason, he may request for an alternative runway direction. The use of an alternative runway direction will be granted by ATC but the flight may be subject to some delay because of other traffic.

8.3 Unless prior permission has been obtained from ATC, the pilot-in-command shall not hold on the runway in use.

8.4 Only one aircraft will be cleared to land on the runway in use at any one time. In VMC, an aircraft may be cleared to continue approach to a runway occupied by a preceding aircraft but clearance to land will not be given until the runway is vacated.

9. Closure of Aerodrome

9.1 Permission for aircraft to land or take-off from aerodrome will not be refused because of adverse weather conditions. The pilot-in-command of a public transport aircraft shall be responsible for operation in accordance with applicable company weather minima.

9.2 Aerodrome will be closed

a) When the surface of the landing area is unfit (e.g. soft surface or hazardous obstruction on the manoeuvring area); or
At such other times and in conditions specified by NOTAM.

Even though all frequencies and codes SHOULD be real,
they are only for use with ProController, SquawkBox and Flight Simulators,
and should NOT be used for real life aviation.

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